Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD) GK

Photo of author

6 Minutes Read

This article talks about the overview (GK) on “Khalji Dynasty”, an important topics for UPSC and other competitive govt job exams.


After Qaiqabad was disable­d, his young son Shamsuddin Kayumars was chosen as the ne­w Sultan. Jalaluddin Khalji killed the infant Sultan Kayurmas in 1290 AD and took the throne. This takeover of power by the Khaljis has been marked as the ‘Khalji Revolution’. This Khalji Revolution (1) ended the so-called Slave Dynasty and Turkish monopoly, (2) brought Hindustani Muslims to power under the leadership of the Khaljis and (3) proved that lineage or blue blood was not necessary to ascend the throne.

Khalji Dynasty map

Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-96 AD):

  • Jalaluddin Khalji was also known as Firuz al-Din Khalji or Malik Feroz Khilji.
  • He was the founder and first Sultan of the Khalji dynasty.
  • His reign in the Delhi Sultanate was from 1290 to 1296 AD.
  • He ascended the throne at the age of 70.
  • Malik Chajju, nephew of Balban and ruler of Kara-Manikpur during the reign of Jalaluddin Khalji, rebelled against the Sultan in 1291 and declared independence.
  • Chajju was defeated and captured. But the Sultan pardoned him and he was rehabilitated with honor.
  • In 1292, about 100,000 Mongols led by Abdullah, the grandson of the Mongol leader Hulegu, attacked Delhi. Sultan Jalaluddin Khalji defeated them.
  • After this battle, many Mongols converted to Islam and settled in Delhi with the Sultan’s permission. They were known as ‘New Muslims’. Later Alauddin Khalji killed about 30 thousand new Muslims.
  • An influential fakir (dervish) named Sidi-Maula lived in Delhi from the time of Balban. But Jalaluddin Firoz killed him on suspicion. This incident is known from the writings of historian Ziauddin Barani. After this immoral incident, a famine occurred in Delhi.
  • Jalaluddin designated Alauddin as the Iqtedar of Kada and Haasi.
  • Jalaluddin Khalji was assassinated by his nephew Alauddin Khilji in Kada.

Read this article on: Background of Delhi Sultanate GK

Alauddin Khilji: 1296-1316

  • The real name of Alauddin Khilji was Ali Gurchamp and he was illiterate.
  • Alauddin Khilji was a nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji.
  • He assassinated his uncle and succeeded to the throne in 1296.
  • His reign was from 1296 to 1316 AD.
  • Alauddin separated religion from politics. He proclaimed that ‘kingship knows no kinship‘.

His famous general Malik Kafur led the campaigns to the south, carrying large amounts of gold from the various kingdoms. He had to face the Mongols but repelled them successfully. As a result, the Ravi river became the boundary between Alauddin and the Mongols.

To remove the various problems created by the nobles of Balban, Alauddin introduced four ordinances.

  • Confiscation of religious endowments and free grants of lands
  • He recognizes efficient espionage or spy system
  • Prohibited the use of liquor and intoxicants or wine.
  • Between the family members, nobles can not marry and also they should not have social gatherings without the kin’s permission.

Alauddin was the first sultan to have a permanent large army. He began the practice of branding the horse called ‘dagh’ and the descriptive role of the soldier called ‘chehra‘ system to prevent fraudulent musters.

Mustakhraj, a special officer's post was created to collect land revenue, house tax, and pasture tax.

He was able to fix the market price of commodities. He created three main markets in Delhi. The first market is for food grain, the second for costly clothes, and the third for horses, slaves, and cattle.

He appointed high-rank officers called 'Shanha' to supervise the markets.

Alauddin died in 1316. After Alauddin’s death, his son Shihabuddin Umar ascended the throne of Delhi in 1316. The last Sultan of the Khalji dynasty was Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 AD).

You can read Alauddin Khilji’s (1296-1316): Overview, Policies, Invasion here.

Later rulers of Khilji dynasty

Shihabuddin Umar:

  • He became the Sultan when he was six years old.
  • The true king was Malik Kafur.

Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah:

  • Mubarak Shah also known as Ikhtiyar al-Din.
  • His reign was from 1316 to1320
  • He was the son of Alauddin Khalji.
  • After Alauddin’s death, Mubarak Shah was imprisoned by Malik Kafur
  • Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah was murdered by Ghazi Malik, the army commander of Punjab in 1320. Thus, the Khilji dynasty came to an end.
RulerTenureAchievements/Important Facts
Jalaluddin Khilji1290-1296Founded the Khilji dynasty
Alauddin Khilji1296-1316Strengthened the Delhi Sultanate.
Introduced several administrative reforms.
Successfully defended the Mongol invasions.
He also the Alai Darwaza and the Alai Minar.
Qutbuddin Mubarak1316-1320Last ruler of Khilji Dynasty
Reigned for a short period after Alauddin Khilji’s death.
He was known for his generosity towards poets and scholars.
Khusro Khan1320Assassinated Qutbuddin Mubarak Khilji.
Soon overthrown by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

FAQs from Khilji Dynasty