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This article is about “SLAVE DYNASTY” and helpful for UPSC and other competitive exams. All the important points of the Slave Dynasty or Ilbari dynasty or Mamluk Dynasty are given here.

The Slave­ Dynasty, also called the Mamluk Dynasty, governe­d parts of India for around a hundred years from 1206 to 1290 AD.

FounderQutb-ud-din Aibak
CapitalInitially Lahore, later Delhi
Duration1206 to 1290 AD
Important RulersQutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan (woman ruler), Ghiyasuddin Balban.

Qutubuddin Aibak: (1206 – 1210)

  1. After the death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206, Qutubuddin Aibak declared himself an independent King.
  2. In 1208 he took the title ‘Sultan’.
  3. The Sultanate rule began in Delhi from his accession to the throne.
  4. The word Aibak means ‘slave’.
  5. Qutubuddin Aibak founded the Slave Dynasty.
  6. His capital was Lahore, now in Pakistan. He established a second capital in Delhi.
  7. He earned the title “Lakh Bakhsh” for his generosity. He assumed the title of “Malik” and ” Siphasalar“.
  8. Qutubuddin constructed the first mosque in India, one is ‘Quwat-ul-Islam‘ in Delhi and the other is ‘Adhai Din Ka Jhonpara‘ (‘Two-and-a-half-Day Cottage’) at Ajmer.
  9. He also began the construction of Qutub Minar after the name of Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar’s aunt who was a famous Sufi saint.
  10. He died of a horse fall at Lahore while playing Polo or Chaugan.
  11. Authors of ‘Tarikh-e-Mubarak Shahi’ Faqruddin and Hasan Nizami graced his meeting.
  12. Qutbuddin was succeeded by his son Aram Shah (1210-1211 AD) on the throne of Delhi.

Iltutmish: 1211 – 1236

Iltutmish: Background

  • The word Iltutmish means ‘maintainer of the kingdom’ in Turkish.
  • Iltutmish succeeded Qutubuddin Aibak as the sultan. His governing type was the entire Turkish.
  • Iltutmis was the slave and son-in-law of Qutubuddin Aybak. He belonged to the Ilbari Turkic community.

Iltutmish: Challenges

  • Iltutmis’s main problem was Nasiruddin Qubacha, who declared himself an independent king of Multan in Sindh.
  • Tajuddin Ilduz, the ruler of Ghazni, asserted his sovereignty over India, and Alimardan Khalibata, the Khalji ruler of Bengal, openly rebelled against Delhi.
  • Taking advantage of all these disturbances, the Rajputs seized power in Jalore, Ranthambore, Ajmer, Gwalior etc.

Iltutmish: Invasions

  • In 1215 he defeated Tajuddin Yildiz in the Third Battle of Tarain.
  • Then in 1226 Iltutmish defeated Nasiruddin Kubacha, dominated Punjab and Sindh and defeated the rebel Nawab Alimardan of Bengal.
  • When Jalaluddin Mangabarni, the ruler of Khiba, reached Punjab and requested shelter near Iltutmis, Iltutmis rejected the proposal. Genghis Khan conquered Sindh and West Punjab.
  • When Genghis Khan died in 1227, Iltutmis took over Sindh and Punjab.
  • He conquered Multan in 1224 under the attack of Bahauddin Zakaria. Between 1226 and 1231 he conquered Ranthambore, Ajmer, Sambhar, Nagaur and Gwalior. In 1234-35 he conquered Malab and Dilsa. He captured Ujjain and destroyed the Mahakala temple there.
  • He transferred the capital from Lahore to Delhi. He saved the Delhi Sultanate from the attack of ‘Changiz Khan‘ who was a Mongol leader.

Iltutmish: Major Achievements

  • Iltutmis received the title ‘Sultan-i-Azam‘ from the Caliph of Baghdad in 1229.
  • He introduced the Turkan-e-Chahalgani or the Chalisa.
  • He circulated pure Arabian gold or silver coins.
  • He introduced the system of “IQTA” which was the grant of revenue from territory instead of salary.
  • Iltutmish completed the construction of Kutub Minar which was started by Aibak. He introduced ‘Tanka‘ the silver coin and ‘Jital‘ the copper coin.
  • He created a powerful group of 40 Turkish nobles called ‘Chalisa‘.
  • He died in 1236.
Read Also: Muhammad Ghori – Key Points (Pre-sultanate era)

Riziya Sultana: 1236 – 1240

  1. Iltutmish was succeeded by his daughter, Riziya. She was the first and last Muslim woman ruler of Medieval India.
  2. He was the first to try to ensure the security of the monarchy by reducing the influence of the Amir-Omrahs of Delhi.
  3. She was also known as Razia al-Din.
  4. She ushered in an important change in administration by appointing non-Turks to high positions.
  5. Many nobles and theologians could not accept her, because her only problem was that she was a lady. That’s why they increased against the monarchy.
  6. Riziya was murdered along with her husband Altunia, by Bahram Shah.

Bahram Shah (1240 – 1242)

  • Bahram Shah was the sixth sultan of the Slave Dynasty.
  • He was the son of Iltutmish and brother of Razia Sultan.

Masud Shah (1242-1246)

  • Masud Shah was the son of Rukunuddin.
  • He was the fourth ruler of the Slave Dynasty.
  • He ruled from 1242 to 1246 AD.

Nasiruddin Mamud (1246 – 1266)

  • Nasiruddin Mahmud was set on the throne by conspiring against Masud Shah.
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud was known as ‘Derveshi Sultan’ for his sincerity and kindness.
  • During the reign of Mahmud Shah, the Mongol leader Holasu occupied Punjab.
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the last sultan of the Iltutmis dynasty.
Read Also: Muhammad Bin Qasim: Key Points (Pre-sultanate era)

Ghiyasuddin Balban: 1266 – 1287

  • His original name was Ulugh Khan.
  • He ascended the throne with the name Ghiyasuddin Balban.
  • He declared himself Naib-e-Khudai. He took the title of ‘Jilullah‘ (Jiplilah – Gift of God).
  • Although Balban being a member of Chalish, he broke it and restored the prestige of the crown.
  • He appointed spies to keep himself well informed. Balban suppressed the Rajput of Delhi called ‘Mewati’.
  • Bengal ruler Tughril Khan rebelled in 1279 during Balban’s reign, and declared independence under the name ‘Sultan Mughisuddin‘. Balban suppressed the rebellion of ‘Tuthril Khan‘.
  • Balban was more successful in solving the problem of Mongol attack than Iltutmish had been.
  • He established the department of the military called ‘Diwan-i-Arz‘.
  • Following the Persian example, he introduced various Persian customs such as kissing the foot of the emperor’s throne, shehzada (kneeling in front of the throne), etc. in the court.
  • He started the Nauroz festival. He declared himself as the representative of God on earth.
  • He also was a patron of the poet, Amir Khusro, who was a great Persian poet.
  • Amir Khusru (Parrot of India), the author of Kiran-us-Sadin, Tughlaqnama, Khwaja-in-ul-Futzat, etc., was the greatest poet of the Balban.
  • Again Hasan Nizami, the author of the book ‘Taj-ul-Masir‘ also got his patronage.
  • During his thirty-year reign, Balban removed anarchy and established peace and order in the country’ and gave stability to the Delhi Sultanate. Hence he is called the ‘second founder‘ of the Delhi Sultanate.

Muhammad Qaiqabad and Qayumas (1287 – 1270)

  • Kaikobad becomes paralyzed.
  • Khalji Malik ascended the throne of Delhi after killing Kaikobad and his infant son Kaijumars.

How the Slave Dynasty Came to the End?

The Slave­ Dynasty’s reign came to an end with the­ rise of a new Power known as Khilji Dynasty. The last Sultan of the Slave Dynasty, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, was overthrown in 1290 AD . His re­moval from power marked the e­nd of the Slave Dynasty. A new dynasty, known as the Khilji Dynasty, arose at this time­.

List of Slave Dynasty Rulers

Qutb ud-Din Aibak(1206-1210 AD)
Aram Shah (1210-1211 AD)
Iltutmish(1211-1236 AD)
Rukn-ud-din Feroze(1236 AD)     
Razia al-Din(1236-1240 AD)
Muiz-ud-din Bahram(1240-1242 AD)
Ala-ud-din Masud(1242-1246 AD)
Nasiruddin Mahmud(1246-1266 AD)
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-1286 AD)
Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad(1286-1290 AD)