Mehrgarh civilization – GK + Notes PDF: Once upon a time, scholars believed that Indian civilization began with the arrival of the Aryans in India. Various archeological discoveries in 1922 prove that long before the arrival of the Aryans, an advanced urban civilization, known as the Harappan Civilization, emerged in the basin of the Indus River. This proves that the Indian civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It was previously thought that the source of the Harappan civilization was the Sumerian or Mesopotamian civilization, and that the Harappan civilization was a remote colony of the Mesopotamian civilization. However, recent archaeological research has proved that the differences between the two civilizations are greater than the similarities. Among the pre-Harappan settlements discovered in Baluchistan are Keli Gul Mohammad and Dumb Sadat in the Quetta region & Lorelai Valley. Rana Ghundai, Periyana Gundi, Khulli-Mehi, Mehrgarh, etc. are notable. However, the archeological site of Mehergarh demands special discussion.
|Period||7000 BCE – 3500 BCE (Neolithic)|
|Founded by||Jean-François Jarrige, Catherine Jarrige|
|Successor||Indus Valley Civilization|
Table of Contents
- Different stages of Mehrgarh civilization
- Importance of Mehrgarh civilization in the history of India
- Vimbetka Cave
- One Liner Objective Questions From Mehrgarh Civilization:
- Frequently Asked Questions from Mehrgarh Civilization:
Archaeological sites of Mehrgarh, spread over 500 acres, have been discovered in the Kachchi plain near the Belan Pass and 150 km away from Quetta city. In 1974, excavations have been carried out here under the leadership of prominent French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige. Later excavations were carried out here in 1996-97. The first three layers of this seven-tiered archeological site date back to the Neolithic Age. At these seven levels, there is a clear picture of each stage of the transition from the life of a nomadic herdsman to citizenship.
Different stages of Mehrgarh civilization
First stage Mehrgarh civilization:
The period of the first stage of the Mehrgarh civilization is 7000 – 5000 BCE. (This is evaluated by the Radiocarbon-14 method).
- Initially, it was a temporary habitat for hunters and nomadic pastoralists, after which it developed a permanent habitat and developed an agrarian way of life.
- The dwellings were made of bricks of equal size with dry clay.
- Mill, hammer, hoe, sickle and stone tools are found here.
- Domestic animals included cows, sheep, goats and bulls, etc were present there.
- Various kinds of barley and wheat were cultivated here.
- The pottery did not match in the corner of this period. However, six human statues have been found.
- At this stage, the space between two houses or two houses was usually used as a graveyard. The bodies were buried on their knees and tilted to one side. However, the head was not always kept to one side.
- Sea oysters used to come to this area due to the connection of the coastal area with Mehergarh. But probably turquoise was imported from Central Asia or Persia and also the Baidurya gems from Afghanistan.
- From this time onwards Mehergarh gradually started moving towards urbanization.
Second stage Mehrgarh civilization:
The period of the second phase of Mehergarh culture is 5,000 – 4,000 BCE.
- Lots of cotton seeds have been found in this period. From this, it can be concluded that people used to cultivate cotton in this period.
- Cultivation of various agricultural products such as wheat, barley and cotton proves human control over water.
- The existence of cattle, sheep, and goats as domestic animals were found.
- The use of earthenware was widespread. At first, these were made. Later, with the invention of the wheel around 4000 AD, it became easier to make those potteries.
- The existence of different types of stones and shells in this period indicates long-distance trade.
Third stage of Mehrgarh civilization:
The period of the third phase of this civilization is 4000 – 3200 BCE.
- The progress of agriculture can be seen by looking at the huge list of crops cultivated in this period.
- At this stage, pottery of various colors started to be made using wheels and fire of the furnace.
- A copper bead and ring were found in the first and second stages. However, in the third phase, there exist at least fourteen terracotta pan/ovens for smelting copper. This proves the widespread use of copper at this time.
- During this time the spread of foreign trade started.
Stage 4 to 7 of Mehrgarh civilization:
It is not possible to specify the exact duration of this episode, but several changes are noticed in this episode. They are:
- The people of this age used different types and colors of potteries.
- During this period, female statues and seals of terracotta were made. These are the forerunners of the female statues and seals found in the Harappan civilization.
- Evidence of cutting canals for irrigation of crops in this period was found.
- The decline of the Mehrgarh civilization began in the middle of the third millennium BC and probably the inhabitants migrated elsewhere.
Importance of Mehrgarh civilization in the history of India
The discovery of Mehergarh civilization is important for many reasons. It had been thought that the Indus Valley Civilization was the oldest civilization in India, but Mehergar’s discovery proves that India developed into an advanced civilization in the pre-Indus period.
For so long, many scholars thought that Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the distant colonies of Mesopotamia. Now the time has changed and the people of the Indus civilization were not outsiders – they are the people of India.
The developed urban civilization of Harappa and Mohenjodaro was not an accident. With the development of human civilization in Mehrgarh and adjoining areas, Harappan civilization is a perfect form of it.
- The oldest civilization in India – Mehrgarh civilization.
- Mehrgarh civilization is the Neolithic civilization.
- The discoverer of the Mehrgarh civilization was a French historian name Jean-François Jarrige.
- Mehrgarh civilization was discovered in – 1974.
- Current Location of Mehrgarh Civilization: Balochistan, Pakistan.
- The Mehrgarh civilization arisen on the banks of the river Belan.
Vimbetka is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is located in Raisen district at the southern end of the Vindhya Mountains & 45 km south of Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh.
It was used by Paleolithic people about 1 million years ago. Cave paintings can be seen at this place. At first, it was thought to be a Buddhist site, but later it was discovered by Dr. VS Wakankar, the father of Indian cave paintings. It was recognized by UNESCO in 2003.
The presence of the first homo sapience can be observed from this civilization. Stone inscriptions, caves and paintings are also found here.
- Nevasa: Use of cotton cloths are found.
- Atranjikhera: The tradition of drawing pictures of Pasha is observed in this place.
- Hastinapur: Sugarcane cultivation patterns are found.
- Inamgaon: An statue of the mother goddess is found.
- Mehrgarh: Patterns of agriculture in ancient times are found.
- Koldihwa: The earliest evidence of paddy cultivation.
- Bagar (Rajasthan), Adamgarh (M.P.: The first herding patterns are found.
One Liner Objective Questions From Mehrgarh Civilization:
|1||Write the name of a discoverer of Mehergarh civilization?||Jean-François Jarrige|
|2||When was the Mehergarh civilization discovered?||1974|
|3||Where was the Mehergarh civilization located?||Bolan Pass|
province of Sindh
|4||Mehrgarh civilization is a pattern of civilization in which pre-historic period of India?||new Stone Age|
|5||Which civilization was formed in India based on animal husbandry?||Mehrgarh civilization|
|6||What was the nature of Mehrgarh civilization?||Agriculture-centric|
|7||Which civilization was formed in India based on animal husbandry?||Mehrgarh civilization|
Frequently Asked Questions from Mehrgarh Civilization:
Mehrgarh civilization general knowledge notes for competitive government job examinations such as IAS, UPSC, state public service commission, PSC WBCS, SSC, CGL, Banking Railway etc.