National Parks WLS in Jammu Kashmir Ladakh
Jammu & Kashmir is home to several stunning national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, making it an important region for biodiversity conservation in India. These national parks and wildlife sanctuaries are essential for the conservation of biodiversity in the region and also contribute to the protection of unique ecosystems and wildlife species.
What is a National Park?
National Parks are basically an area of the countryside protected by the state or the central govt. for the enjoyment of the general public as well as the preservation of wildlife under sec.35. or sec.38 or deemed, under sub-section (3) of sec.66.
A National Park is a protected area of land or water designated by a government to conserve the natural environment and its wildlife, as well as to provide opportunities for outdoor recreation, education, and scientific research. National Parks are established to preserve and protect significant natural and cultural features, ensuring that these areas remain relatively untouched by human development and activities.
Jammu & Kashmir is one of the most disputed areas between India and Pakistan. It is famous for its beautiful landscape and rich culture and the Vaishno Devi Temple in Katra. Nowadays this state is becoming the favorite tourist place in the world. A large number of tourists are attracted to its beautiful sight.
List of National Parks in Jammu Kashmir Ladakh
|Sl No.||Name||Established||District||Area sq km||Famous For|
|1||Hemis National Park||1981||Ladakh||4400||Snow Leopard|
|2||Dachigam National Park||1981||Srinagar||141||Hangul|
|3||Kishtwar National Park||1981||Kishtwar||400||Snow Cock, brown bear|
|4||Kazinag National Park||1992||Baramulla||426||Markhor|
|5||Salim Ali National Park||1986||Srinagar||9.05||Musk Deer|
Hemis National Park is the largest national park in South Asia.
Hemis National Park
Hemis National Park is one of the most renowned national parks in India and is located in the eastern Ladakh region of the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is known for its stunning landscapes, diverse wildlife, and unique cultural significance. Here are some key facts and features of Hemis National Park:
- Location: Hemis National Park is situated in the eastern part of Ladakh, within the larger Himalayan region. It is located about 40 kilometers southeast of Leh, the capital of Ladakh.
- Establishment: The park was established in 1981 and covers an area of approximately 4,400 square kilometers, making it the largest national park in India.
- Landscape: The park is characterized by rugged mountain terrain, high-altitude plateaus, deep valleys, and numerous streams and rivers. It is surrounded by some of the highest peaks in the Indian Himalayas, including Stok Kangri.
- Flora: The park is home to a variety of vegetation types, including alpine meadows, scrublands, and dry forests. Vegetation in the park is adapted to the harsh high-altitude conditions.
- Fauna: Hemis National Park is renowned for its diverse wildlife, including several rare and endangered species. Notable species found in the park include:
- Snow Leopard: The park is famous for its population of elusive snow leopards, which are one of the main attractions for wildlife enthusiasts and researchers.
- Tibetan Wolf: Another apex predator found in the park.
- Red Fox, Eurasian Brown Bear, and Lynx: Other carnivores present in the park.
- Bharal (Blue Sheep), Argali Sheep, and Ibex: Herbivores adapted to the high-altitude environment.
- Numerous Bird Species: Hemis is also a haven for birdwatchers, with a variety of bird species, including lammergeiers, golden eagles, and more.
- Cultural Significance: The park is named after the famous Hemis Monastery, one of the most significant and largest monasteries in Ladakh. The annual Hemis Festival, held at the monastery, is a major cultural event in the region.
- Conservation: Hemis National Park is crucial for the conservation of the snow leopard and its prey species. Efforts are made to protect the park’s delicate ecosystem and to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.
- Visitor Experience: The park attracts adventure enthusiasts, wildlife photographers, and trekkers. Trekking routes like the Markha Valley Trek pass through the park, providing opportunities to explore its stunning landscapes and wildlife.
Visitors to Hemis National Park are encouraged to follow strict environmental guidelines to minimize their impact on the fragile ecosystem. It is important to obtain necessary permits and adhere to park regulations when visiting the area, as it is a protected wilderness.
Dachigam National Park
Dachigam National Park is a prominent protected area located near Srinagar in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It holds significant ecological and conservation importance. Here’s an overview of Dachigam National Park:
- Location: Dachigam National Park is situated approximately 22 kilometers northeast of Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is nestled in the Zabarwan Range of the western Himalayas, covering an area of about 141 square kilometers.
- Establishment: Dachigam National Park was originally established as a wildlife sanctuary in 1910 and later granted national park status in 1981. The name “Dachigam” translates to “ten villages,” signifying its historical role as a vital source of freshwater for nearby villages.
- Landscape and Geography: The park’s landscape is characterized by steep hills, deep valleys, and high-altitude terrain. It is situated in a picturesque and rugged setting, offering stunning natural beauty.
- Flora: Dachigam National Park features diverse vegetation, including dense forests, meadows, and alpine pastures. The park is home to coniferous trees, oaks, and a variety of flowering plants.
- Fauna: The park is renowned for its crucial role in the conservation of the Hangul deer, also known as the Kashmir stag. It is the last refuge of this critically endangered species. Other notable wildlife species found in the park include leopards, Himalayan black bears, and various bird species. Dachigam is also a habitat for several species of pheasants and other avian fauna.
- Cultural Significance: In addition to its ecological significance, Dachigam National Park holds cultural and historical importance. The park contains several ancient temples and shrines within its boundaries, reflecting the region’s rich cultural heritage.
- Conservation: The park’s primary conservation objective is the protection and preservation of the Hangul deer population. Conservation efforts include habitat preservation, anti-poaching measures, and scientific research on the Hangul deer’s behavior and habitat requirements.
- Visitor Experience: Dachigam National Park is open to visitors, providing opportunities for wildlife viewing, trekking, and picnicking. It serves as a tranquil and natural retreat for tourists visiting Srinagar, offering a glimpse of the region’s natural beauty and biodiversity.
- Management: The park is managed by the Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife Department, which works diligently to ensure the conservation of the Hangul deer and the park’s overall biodiversity.
Dachigam National Park’s unique combination of ecological significance, cultural heritage, and breathtaking landscapes makes it an essential protected area in India. It plays a crucial role in the conservation of the endangered Hangul deer and offers a valuable opportunity for both conservation and eco-tourism.
Kishtwar National Park
Kishtwar National Park is a significant protected area located in the Kishtwar district of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is renowned for its diverse flora, fauna, and stunning natural beauty. Here’s an overview of Kishtwar National Park for UPSC preparation:
- Location: Kishtwar National Park is situated in the Kishtwar district of the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is nestled in the eastern part of the state and covers a vast area.
- Establishment: Kishtwar National Park was established in the year 1981. The park was created to conserve the unique biodiversity and ecology of the region.
- Landscape and Geography: The park’s landscape is characterized by rugged mountains, deep valleys, alpine meadows, and dense forests. It is situated in the northwest Himalayan region, presenting a picturesque and diverse topography.
- Flora: Kishtwar National Park is known for its diverse vegetation, including alpine pastures, coniferous forests, and meadows. The region is rich in plant species, contributing to the overall biodiversity of the park.
- Fauna: The park is home to a variety of wildlife species, including the Hangul deer, Himalayan brown bear, Markhor, Snow leopard, and musk deer. Bird species like Monal pheasant and western tragopan are also found in the park.
- Cultural and Historical Significance: The region surrounding Kishtwar National Park has historical and cultural significance, with various ancient temples and shrines. The park area is characterized by its traditional tribal communities and their unique way of life.
- Conservation: Kishtwar National Park is essential for the conservation of several endangered species, including the Hangul deer and Snow leopard. Conservation efforts include habitat protection, anti-poaching measures, and community involvement in conservation activities.
- Visitor Experience: The park offers opportunities for adventure enthusiasts, including trekking, wildlife viewing, and photography. It provides a chance to experience the natural beauty and biodiversity of the Himalayan region.
- Management: Kishtwar National Park is managed by the Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife Department, which oversees its conservation and sustainable management.
Kishtwar National Park, with its diverse ecosystems and significant biodiversity, stands as an important protected area in the Himalayan region. It plays a vital role in the conservation of endangered species and contributes to the overall conservation efforts in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Kazinag National Park
Kazinag National Park is a protected area located in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated in the Baramulla district of the Kashmir Valley, in the northernmost region of India. The park was officially declared a national park in 2020, making it one of the newer additions to India’s list of protected areas.
Key features and information about Kazinag National Park:
- Location: Kazinag National Park is nestled in the pristine forests of the western Himalayas, and it covers an area of approximately 235 square kilometers.
- Biodiversity: The park is known for its rich biodiversity, with diverse flora and fauna. It is home to several endangered and rare species of wildlife, including the Himalayan brown bear, hangul (a species of red deer), musk deer, snow leopard, and various species of pheasants.
- Landscape: The park’s landscape consists of dense forests, meadows, and high-altitude wetlands. It is surrounded by the Pir Panjal Range and provides a critical corridor for wildlife movement in the region.
- Importance: Kazinag National Park is significant for the conservation of the hangul, which is the only surviving population of red deer in the Indian subcontinent. The park also helps protect the habitats of various other endangered species.
- Conservation: The national park was established with the primary aim of conserving the unique biodiversity of the region and protecting its fragile ecosystems. Conservation efforts include habitat restoration, anti-poaching measures, and raising awareness among local communities.
- Access: Access to Kazinag National Park is restricted, and tourists need permits to enter the park. The park’s management aims to strike a balance between conservation and sustainable tourism.
Please note that the status and regulations related to Kazinag National Park may have evolved since my last knowledge update.
Salim Ali National Park
- Location: Salim Ali National Park is located in Srinagar and has a 9 sq. km. total size.
- Establishment: Notified in 1986. Salim Ali, a well-known Indian ornithologist, is honored by the name. Later, a golf course was built on the site of this park.
- Flora and Fauna: It served as the habitat for Hangul, the Himalayan Black Bear, and the Himalayan Serow. Additionally, it provides shelter for more than 70 different bird species. It is one of the best bird sanctuaries in India and is situated in a part of the state with good transportation.
Jammu & Kashmir is a birdwatcher and animal lover’s paradise if they want to see these beautiful animals in their natural habitat.
List of Wildlife Sanctuary in Jammu Kashmir Ladakh
|#||Wildlife Sanctuary||District||Area (Km2)|
|1||Overa – Aru WLS||Anantnag||425||1981|
|2||Rajparian (Daksum) WLS||Anantnag||20||1981|
|7||Thajwas (Baltal) WLS||Ganderbal||203||1987|
|11||Surinsar WLS||Udhampur/ Samba/ Jammu||98||1990|
|13||Tata Kutti WLS||Poonch||66||2007|