Bihar is home to several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, which play a crucial role in the conservation of the state’s biodiversity. These protected areas provide habitat for a wide range of wildlife species. Here are some of the important national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in Bihar:
Valmiki National Park
Valmiki National Park is a protected area located in the West Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is one of the most important national parks in Bihar and is known for its rich biodiversity and natural beauty. Here are some key details about Valmiki National Park:
- Location: Valmiki National Park is situated in the northwestern part (West Champaran District) of Bihar, near the border with Nepal. It covers an area of approximately 880 square kilometers.
- Establishment: The park was established in 1976 and was later designated as a tiger reserve in 1994. It is one of the 18 tiger reserves in India.
- Area: The total area of the Valmiki National park is about 335.65 Km2.
- Biodiversity: The park is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. It is known for its diverse wildlife, including Bengal tigers, Indian leopards, Indian elephants, sloth bears, sambar deer, wild boars, and various species of birds and reptiles.
Fauna of Valmiki National Park
- Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris): Valmiki National Park is home to a population of Bengal tigers, which are the apex predators in the region. These tigers are among the most iconic and endangered big cats in the world.
- Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca): Indian leopards can also be found in the park. They are elusive and solitary creatures that are well adapted to the forested terrain.
- Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus): The park is home to a population of Indian elephants. These gentle giants roam the forests and grasslands of Valmiki National Park.
- Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus): Sloth bears are another charismatic species found in the park. They are known for their shaggy coats and distinctive markings.
- Indian Bison (Bos gaurus): Also known as the Indian Gaur, this is one of the largest species of wild cattle and is found in the hilly areas of the park.
- Spotted Deer (Axis axis): Spotted deer, also known as chital, are one of the most commonly sighted herbivores in the park. They are known for their distinctive spotted coats.
- Sambar Deer (Rusa unicolor): The sambar is another species of deer found in Valmiki National Park. They are larger than the spotted deer and are often seen near water sources.
- Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Wild boars are abundant in the park and are known for their adaptability to various habitats.
- Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha): Indian civets are small carnivorous mammals found in the park. They are primarily nocturnal and have a distinctive appearance.
- Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta): These monkeys are commonly seen in the park, especially near human settlements. They are known for their reddish-brown fur and expressive faces.
- Indian Python (Python molurus): Valmiki National Park is also home to various reptile species, including the Indian python, a non-venomous snake.
- Crocodiles: Marsh crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) can be found in the rivers and water bodies within the park.
These are just a few examples of the diverse wildlife that can be found in Valmiki National Park.
Flora of Valmiki National Park
- Sal (Shorea robusta): Sal is the dominant tree species in the park and covers a significant portion of its forested area. It is an important timber species and provides habitat for many wildlife species.
- Bamboo (Bambusa spp.): Various species of bamboo are found in Valmiki National Park. Bamboo is an essential source of food and shelter for several animals, including elephants.
- Semal (Bombax ceiba): Also known as the silk cotton tree, Semal is a large deciduous tree that produces beautiful red flowers. It is an important source of nectar for pollinators.
- Mahua (Madhuca longifolia): The mahua tree is culturally and economically significant in this region. Its flowers are used to produce mahua liquor, and its seeds are a source of edible oil.
- Palash (Butea monosperma): Palash, also known as the flame of the forest, is a deciduous tree with bright orange-red flowers. It adds a splash of color to the landscape during the flowering season.
- Teak (Tectona grandis): Teak is a valuable timber species and is found in parts of the park.
- Arjun (Terminalia arjuna): The Arjun tree is known for its medicinal properties and is used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.
- Jamun (Syzygium cumini): The jamun tree produces delicious, dark-purple berries that are enjoyed by both humans and wildlife.
- Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis): Also known as Amla, this tree produces small, green, and highly nutritious fruits used in traditional Indian medicine and culinary dishes.
- Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia): This tree is known for its valuable timber and is found in the park’s forests.
These are just a few examples of the diverse flora found in Valmiki National Park. The park’s ecosystem supports a wide range of plant species, including many medicinal plants, herbs, and grasses.
Valmiki National Park is not only significant for its contribution to wildlife conservation but also for the natural beauty it offers to visitors. It provides an opportunity to experience the untamed wilderness and observe a variety of wildlife species in their natural habitat.
Wildlife Sanctuaries of Bihar
Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary
Location: Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Munger district of Bihar, India.
Area: CCovers an area of approximately 681 square kilometers.
Established: Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1976.
Fauna: Bengal Tiger, Leopard, Indian Wild Dog (Dhole), Indian Elephant, Sloth Bear, Various Deer Species including sambar, chital, and barking deer. Various Bird Species such as peafowl, grey partridge, quail, Malabar hornbill, and pied hornbill.
Flora: Sal (Shorea robusta), Bamboo (Bambusa spp.), Semal (Bombax ceiba), Teak (Tectona grandis), Mahua (Madhuca longifolia), Jamun (Syzygium cumini), etc.
Biomes: Grassland and forest are the two main biomes found in Bhimbandh.
Pant Wildlife Sanctuary
Location: Pant Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area located near Rajgir in Nalanda district, Bihar, India..
Area: Covers an area of approximately 35.84 square kilometers.
Established: Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1978.
Flora and fauna: With 28 species of big mammals, 183 species of birds, 39 species of reptiles, 11 species of amphibians, 13 species of fish, and 51 species of butterflies the sanctuary boasts a significant diversity of fauna. Among them Wild boar, nilgai, chital, golden jackal, Indian python are common.
Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary
Location: The Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Kaimur district of Bihar, India. It is situated in the Kaimur plateau region, which is part of the eastern extension of the Vindhya Range.
Area: 1504.96 square KM.
Flora: Dry Deciduous Forests, Bamboo, Semal (Bombax ceiba), Mahua (Madhuca longifolia), Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon), etc.
Fauna: Leopard, Barking Deer, Indian Wolf, Langur Monkey, Indian boars, Indian pangolins, sloth bears. Various Bird Species like peafowl, grey partridge, quail, Malabar, pied hornbill, etc.
Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary
Location: The Gautam Buddha Bird Sanctuary, also known as Gautam Buddha Wildlife Sanctuary, is located in the Gaya district of Bihar, India.
Area: 259 square KM.
Flora: Riverine Forests, Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa).
Fauna: During the winter months, the sanctuary attracts a variety of migratory birds, including waterfowl and waders, which visit the wetlands and water bodies in the area. Numerous resident bird species can be spotted year-round, including kingfishers, herons, egrets, cormorants, and various species of waterfowl. Peafowl, Eurasian Spoonbill, Sarus Crane, Black-necked Stork, etc.
Historical and Cultural Significance: In addition to its rich birdlife, the Gautam Buddha Bird Sanctuary is historically and culturally significant due to its association with Gautam Buddha. Nearby Bodh Gaya is where it is believed that Buddha attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree.
Udaypur Wildlife Sanctuary
Location: Udaypur Wildlife Sanctuary located in the West Champaran district of Bihar state, India.
Established: It was established in 1978.
Area: covers an area of 8.74 square KM.
Flora: swamp forest, dry riverine forest, and khair-sissoo forest.
Fauna: water birds.
- Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
- Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary
- Nagi Dam Bird Sanctuary
- Nakti Dam Bird Sanctuary
- Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
- Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
List of National Parks Wildlife Sanctuaries in Bihar
|Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary||Gaya||1976||260|
|Valmiki National Park||West Champaran||1989||335|
|Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary||Munger||1976||681.99|
|Udaypur Wildlife Sanctuary||Champaran||1978||8.8|
|Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary||Bhagalpur||1990||60|
|Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary||Begusarai||1987||67.5|
|Nagi Dam Bird Sanctuary||Jamui||1987||7.91|
|Nakti Dam Bird Sanctuary||Jamui||1987||3.32|
|Pant Wildlife Sanctuary||Rajgir, Nalanda||1978||35.84|
|Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park||Patna||1969||0.619|
|Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary||Vaishali||1997||2|
|Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary||Kaimur and Rohtas||1979||1505|
|Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary||West Champaran||1976||880.78|