Governor of State – Notes GK

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Governors are the constitutional head of each of the states. They are appointed by the President on the advice of Prime minister. The Governor has the similar power in state as the President in the center.

Governor of India Notes

A governor is the constitutional head of a state or union territory (UT). The role and powers of a governor in India are defined by the Indian Constitution. This article provides an overview of the role and powers of a Governor., and can be helpful for UPSC exam preparation.

This article is about the Governor of India which is important as general knowledge points for any kind of competitive examinations for government jobs such as IAS, UPSC, SSC, CGL, Banking, Railway etc.

In imitation of the Government of India Act, of 1935, Article 163 of the Constitution of India empowers the Governor to perform certain voluntary works in the states. The Governor does not consult with the State Cabinet during the exercise of this power.

According to Article 153 of the Constitution, there will be a Governor in each state. However, for two or more states, the same person can be appointed as the governor.

In the autonomous districts described in the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution, the Governor may exercise his discretionary power in disputes over the distribution of mineral resources.

The Governor can also exercise his discretionary power in appointing and dismissing members of the Cabinet, including the Chief Minister, convening sessions of the Legislative Assembly and dissolving the Legislative Assembly.

It is the responsibility of the Governor to inform the President whether the administration of the State is being conducted in accordance with the Constitution. In this case, he enjoys his power according to his will.

In the constitution, the governors of Nagaland, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Sikkim, etc. can act at their own discretion.

How is a Governor Appointed in India?

The appointment process of a Governor is given in Article 155.

  1. The Prime Minister recommends suitable candidates.
  2. The President consults with the Chief Minister of that state before appointment.
  3. The President issues a formal order of appointment.
  4. The Governor’s tenure is not fixed however, they typically serve a term of five years.

Power & Function of Governor:

The important role of the Governor depends on the Chief Minister. Three major powers are vested to the governor of India. These are –

  1. Executive powers
  2. Legislative powers
  3. Discretionary powers

Executive powers:

  1. According to Article 154 of the Constitution, the governing power of the state is vested in the Governor.
  2. According to Article 164 of the Constitution, the Governor appoints the Chief Minister and appoints other Ministers on the advice of the Chief Minister.
  3. Governor can nominate 1 person from the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assembly.
  4. The governor can also nominate a few people in the Legislative Assembly from various fields such as literature, science, arts, social service, etc.
  5. The governors of Bihar, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh can appoint one minister (as an in-charge) in each of the respective states.

Legislative powers

  • The Governor summons and prorogues the sessions of the Legislative Assembly (in states).
  • Governor has the authority to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
  • Must give his/her assent before a bill is passed by the state legislature and becomes law.

The governor can send messages to any session or joint session of both houses of parliament.

The governor can send the bill to the president for consideration without signing it. However, the President when will send the bill to the Governor depends entirely on the President.

If the session in the Legislative Assembly is closed, the Governor may issue an ordinance for a maximum of 6 months and must pass it within 6 weeks in the Legislative Assembly.

Discretionary powers

  • Governor can reserve certain bills if enacted.
  • Governor can recommend the President’s Rule in the state.
  • Governor appoints the Advocate General of the state.

In a situation when the majority is not held by any party, the Governor has the discretion to select a candidate for the Chief Minister. Then candidate should establish a majority coalition as soon as possible.

The governor has the right to impose the president’s rule in the state.

Pursuant to Article 353 of the constitution, If the president permits, the governor can overrule the advice of the council of ministers during the emergency period.

Miscellaneous Powers:

  • The Governor appoints judges of the High Court.
  • The Governor performs administrative functions such as issuing ordinances, appointing officers, etc.

Financial Powers of the Governor

  1. Governor gives approval to the state budget.
  2. The Governor cannot veto or amend money bill. He forwards the bill to the President for approval.
  3. Governor can make grants-in-aid to institutions in state.
  4. Governor can recommend to the President that financial emergency be declared. This is a rare and extreme condition.

Qualifications of Governor in India

The desired qualifications to become a governor of India are constituted in Article 157.

  1. Must be a citizen of India.
  2. Age should be 35 years old or greater.
  3. Should not be a member of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha or the State Legislative Assembly.
  4. Should not hold an office of profit.

Impeachment of Governor of India

The Impeachment of the Governor in India is constituted in Article 160.

  1. The governor can resign by himself.
  2. On the advice of Prime Minister, the President can remove a Governor.
  3. The governor can not be removed without a valid reason.
  4. The governor can be dismissed for his unconstitutional activity.

Here are the circumstances under which a Governor can be removed from office in India:

  1. When the central government changes, the Governor appointed before resigns or is replaced by the new government. This is a common process.
  2. A Governor can resign at any time by submitting their resignation to the President.
  3. In case of reorganization of states or union territories, Governors may be transferred or changed.
  4. After Completion of Term (Article 156)

Constitutional Position of the Governor

Article 154deals with the executive power of the State vested in the Governor.
Article 154(2)Parliamentry authority regarding Governor in legislation.
Article 163Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
Article 164Other provisions as to Council of Ministers, relationship with the Governor and state.
Article 161 Power of the Governor to grant pardons and others.

Salary of Governor of India

The salary of the Governor in a state of India is Rs. 350,000. He also enjoys other payable allowances.

List of Governors of State in India (2023):

Andhra PradeshShri Justice (Retd.) S. Abdul Nazeer
Arunachal PradeshLt. General Kaiwalya Trivikram Parnaik (Retired)
AssamShri Gulab Chand Kataria
BiharShri Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar
ChhattisgarhShri Biswa Bhusan Harichandan
GoaShri P.S. Sreedharan Pillai
GujaratShri Acharya Dev Vrat
HaryanaShri Bandaru Dattatraya
Himachal PradeshShri Shiv Pratap Shukla
JharkhandShri C.P. Radhakrishnan
KarnatakaShri Thaawarchand Gehlot
KeralaShri Arif Mohammed Khan
Madhya PradeshShri Mangubhai Chhaganbhai Patel
MaharashtraShri Ramesh Bais
ManipurSushri Anusuiya Uikye
MeghalayaShri Phagu Chauhan
MizoramDr. Kambhampati Haribabu
NagalandShri La. Ganesan
OdishaProf. Ganeshi Lal
PunjabShri Banwarilal Purohit
RajasthanShri Kalraj Mishra
SikkimShri Lakshman Prasad Acharya
Tamil NaduShri R. N. Ravi
TelanganaDr. Tamilisai Soundararajan
TripuraShri Satyadeo Narain Arya
Uttar PradeshSmt. Anandiben Patel
UttarakhandLt. Gen. Gurmit Singh (Retd.)
West BengalDr. C.V. Ananda Bose
List of Governors of state in India:
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