Public Service Commission for the Union & the States – GK Notes PDF

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By: SAM
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The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is a government organization responsible for the requirement of various central jobs across the country (India). The arrangement of various jobs, appointment, transfer promotion etc. are directly control by UPSC consulting with the government.

UPSC and SPSC

Articles 315 to 323 of the Indian Constitution deal with the provisions related to the Public Service Commission (PSC) in India. These articles establish the structure, functions, and powers of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and State Public Service Commission (SPSCs).

Historical Background of UPSC and SPSC

Public Service Commission (Union & States) – GK + Notes PDF: The first Public Service Commission (PSC) was set up on 1st October 1926. Articles 315-323 of Part XIV of the Constitution of India tell us the formation of a Central and State Public Service Commission. The Central Public Service Commission was constituted in 1926 and the State Public Service Commission in 1937.

There will be a Public Service Commission for the central govt. i.e., UPSC (Union Public Service Commission). Also, there will be separate Public Service Commissions for each State (SPSC State Public Service Commission) and Joint State Public Service CommissionJSPSC for one or more States.

What is Public Service Commission?

The Public Service Commission (Union & States) is a constitutional body of the government of India to conducts various types of examinations in the country. Here is a list of examinations conducted by the Public Service Commission (Union & States).

  • Civil Services Exam (UPSC, IAS)
  • Indian Forest Service Exam
  • Engineering Services Exams
  • Combined Defense Services Exam
  • National Defense Academy Exams
  • Naval Academy Exams
  • Combined Medical Services Exams
  • Railway Apprentice for special categories
  • Central Armed Police Forces (Assistant Commandant) Examination
Established1st Oct 1926
HeadquarterNew Delhi
JurisdictionGovt. of India
Websitehttps://upsc.gov.in/
executivePradeep Kumar Joshi

Constitutional Provisions

Articles 315 to 323 of the Indian Constitution deal with the provisions related to the Public Service Commission (PSC) in India. These articles establish the structure, functions, and powers of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) and State Public Service Commission (SPSCs).

  1. Article 315: This article deals with the composition of the Public Service Commission at the Union level (UPSC) and at the State level (SPSCs). It specifies that there shall be a UPSC to conduct examinations for recruitment to services and posts under the Union, and each State shall have its SPSC.
  2. Article 316: Article 316 lays down the conditions of service of the Chairman and members of the UPSC and SPSCs. It also outlines the procedure for their appointment, removal, and terms of office.
  3. Article 317: This article deals with the removal and suspension of the Chairman or members of UPSC and SPSCs. It requires the President (in the case of UPSC) or the Governor (in the case of SPSCs) to follow a specific procedure for their removal.
  4. Article 318: Article 318 provides for the power to make regulations by the UPSC regarding their conditions of service and the conduct of their business. This allows UPSC to govern its internal procedures.
  5. Article 319: Prohibition regarding the exercise of office by former Commission members.
  6. Article 320: Article 320 deals with the functions of UPSC and SPSCs. It specifies that the primary function of these commissions is to conduct examinations for recruitment to various civil services and posts under the Union and States.
  7. Article 321: This article empowers the Parliament to make laws regulating the recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or any State. It also allows the States to make similar laws for their own services.
  8. Article 322: The Consolidated Fund of India or the state will be used to cover the costs of the Union or a State Public Service Commission, including any wages, allowances, or pensions due to or in regard to the commission’s members or employees.
  9. Article 323: Duty of the Union Commission and State Commission to present annually to the President a report and to present annually to the Governor of the State a report respectively.

Union Public Service Commission

Formation and Constitutional Basis:

  • The UPSC was established under Article 315 of the Indian Constitution.
  • It is the central recruiting agency responsible for conducting civil service examinations and appointments for the Union Government.

Functions of UPSC:

  • The primary function of the UPSC is to conduct examinations for the recruitment of candidates to various civil services and posts under the Union.
  • It conducts the Civil Services Examination (CSE), Indian Forest Service Examination (IFSE), Engineering Services Examination (ESE), and several other competitive exams.
  • The UPSC also plays a role in advising the President on matters related to the appointment, promotion, and transfer of civil servants.

Composition:

  • The UPSC consists of a Chairman and other members, the number of which is determined by the President.

Independence and Impartiality:

  • The UPSC is known for its independence and impartiality in conducting examinations and making appointments, ensuring a fair and transparent recruitment process.

Examinations Conducted:

  • The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is one of the most prestigious exams conducted by the UPSC. It is the gateway to various administrative services like IAS, IPS, IFS, and others.

State Public Service Commission

Constitutional Basis: The establishment and functioning of State Public Service Commissions are provided for in Article 315 to Article 323 of the Indian Constitution. Each state may have its own SPSC, and its composition and functions are determined by the respective state’s governor.

Composition:

  • The composition of SPSCs typically includes a Chairman and other members. The number of members and their qualifications are specified by the state government.
  • Just like the UPSC, the Chairman and members of SPSCs are appointed by the Governor of the state.

Examinations Conducted: SPSCs conduct various state-level examinations, including the State Civil Services Examination, State Police Service Examination, State Forest Service Examination, and other departmental examinations.

Functions:

  • The main function of SPSCs is to conduct recruitment examinations for various state-level civil services, including administrative, police, forest, engineering, education, and more.
  • They are also responsible for advising the state government on matters related to recruitment, promotion, and transfers of civil servants.

Joint State Public Service Commission – JSPSC

The Joint State Commission is established with the approval of Parliament but becomes effective after it is passed by the state legislature. The President appoints the Chairman of the Central and Joint Public Service Commission.

  • It was legal to create the Joint State Public Service Commission. There is no constitutional body for it. Following the separation of Punjab and Haryana in 1966, the two states shared a single public service commission for a brief period of time.
  • They may be dismissed or suspended by the President. They can also deliver their letters of resignation to the president at any moment. The president chooses the JSPSC’s membership structure and terms of service.
  • A Joint State Public Service Commission provides each of the relevant state governors with an annual performance report. The governor presents the report to the state legislature.
  • The number of members of the Commission and the conditions of service is organized by

Appointment and Term of Office of Members

The Chairman and members of the Public Service Commission are appointed by

  • the President in the case of the Union Public Service Commission and the Joint Commission of State.
  • the Governor in the case of the State Commission of State.

Half of the members of the Commission are officers of the Government of India or officers of the State Government with ten years of experience.

The term of office of the members and president of the Public Service Commission is 6 years. However, the members of the Central Public Service Commission are required to retire at the age of 65 years before the end of their term. In the case of State and Joint Public Service Officers, they are required to retire at the age of 62 years.

Reasons for members to leave before the deadline from the office of UPSC

(1) In case of voluntary resignation of any member, the members of the Central and Joint Commission of State may submit their resignation letter to the President. Also, the members of the State Public Service Commission may submit their resignation letter to the Governor.

(2) Dismissed by the President

(a) If the Chairman of the Commission or any other member of the Commission is declared bankrupt, or if he has taken a paid job elsewhere while he is a member of the Commission, or if he is deemed unfit to be a member due to a mental or physical infirmity, the president can remove him.

(b) Again, this dismissal may occur on the basis of an allegation of misconduct. In this case, the matter has to be sent to the Supreme Court for a recommendation on removal. The President can remove the accused if recommended by the Supreme Court. After receiving the report of the Supreme Court on the eve of the investigation against the accused member, the Governor may suspend the member for a period of time until the President issues an order.

Freedom of the Public Service Commission (Union & States)

The Constitution of India mentions the protection of the independence of the State Commission.

  1. A member cannot be removed without the procedure specified in the Constitution.
  2. Terms of service cannot be changed against the interests of any member after the appointment of the members in the Commission.
  3. Expenditure on salaries and allowances of the members of the Commission is treated as expenditure incurred by the Reserve Fund of India.
  4. The Chairman and members of the Commission may, after the expiration of their term, be members of the State Commission or President of the Central Commission of State, but may not take up government service in any corner.

Summary of Public Service Commission (Union & States)

The functions of this commission are discussed below

  1. State Commission is appointed to conduct Central and State govt Job Examinations.
  2. At the request of the Governor of the State and subject to the approval of the President, the Commission may act to meet any need in the State.
  3. Parliament may extend the functions of the Commission by enacting laws.
  4. The Central Commission submits an annual report to the President on their activities. The Commission of State submits their annual report to the Governor.
  5. Upon request of two or more States, the Commission may make arrangements for the selection of candidates for the States concerned.

Download Public Service Commission (Union & States) GK + Notes

Short notes and important point points regarding UPSC for various competitive examinations such as IAS, UPSC, WBCS, State PSC, Banking, and others.